May 14, 2024

Cloud infrastructure is a collection of virtualized and scalable resources that provide the framework for cloud computing, delivered and managed over the internet or through dedicated networks. The backbone of cloud computing services, cloud infrastructure, is provided by cloud services providers (CSPs) to host applications, manage data storage, and run computing operations on their hardware and networks.

Available on demand with a pay-as-you-go model that reduces upfront capital expenditures, cloud infrastructure replaces or augments traditional on-premises data center components with services.

Cloud infrastructure supports the deployment of various types of cloud environments, including public, private, and hybrid clouds, offering flexibility, scalability, and cost-efficiency.

How cloud infrastructure works

Cloud infrastructure operates by abstracting computing resources from physical hardware. The following are key functions of cloud infrastructure and explanations of how they work.

Network access

Cloud networking components connect resources within the cloud and link the cloud infrastructure to the internet. This includes virtual networks, load balancers, and virtual private networks (VPNs) for secure connections, as well as content delivery networks (CDNs) to distribute content more efficiently. Cloud infrastructure enables users to connect to their resources from any remote location with internet access.  

Provisioning and management

Users can provision cloud resources through web interfaces or application programming interfaces (APIs) provided by cloud service providers. This self-service model enables users to quickly set up and configure compute instances, storage, and networking components as needed without depending on human interaction with the cloud service provider. Cloud infrastructure also facilitates the efficient administration of cloud environments by providing management tools for monitoring resource usage, performance, and security.

Resource pooling

Cloud providers maintain data centers equipped with servers, storage devices, and networking equipment that are pooled together to serve users customers through a multi-tenant model. This enables the scalability and flexibility associated with cloud infrastructure because these pooled resources can be dynamically allocated and reallocated based on customer demand.

Scalability and elasticity

A fundamental feature of cloud infrastructure is its scalability and elasticity, which allows users to scale resources up or down based on demand. Elasticity and scalability are handled with automation and orchestration tools that dynamically adjust resource allocations to manage peak loads, reduce the need for overprovisioning, and optimize costs.


The core technology behind cloud infrastructure is virtualization. It allows multiple virtual machines (VMs) to run on a single physical server’s hardware. Each VM can operate independently, running its operating system and applications, making it possible for disparate users or tasks to utilize the same physical resources and scale services up or down as needed.

Components of cloud infrastructure


Virtual servers, referred to as instances, provide the resources required for running applications and processing data. Cloud service providers offer various instance types optimized for different workloads, such as general-purpose, computer-optimized, or memory-optimized instances. These instances are available with varying configurations of central processing units (CPUs), memory, and processing power.  


With cloud infrastructure, managed database services provide scalable database hosting solutions, removing the need for manual database administration tasks. Managed database services offer scalable and highly available database solutions to support database engines, such as SQL (structured query language), NoSQL, and in-memory databases. Cloud infrastructure services cover database maintenance tasks, such as backups, patching, and scaling.

Development tools

Cloud infrastructure providers often offer development tools and platforms as part of their infrastructure services, such as container orchestration systems, serverless computing platforms, and integrated development environments (IDEs). These tools support application development, deployment, and scaling in the cloud.

Management and monitoring

Cloud infrastructure includes tools for monitoring performance, managing resources, automating deployments, and enabling compliance. These include monitoring and analytics tools, identity and access management (IAM) services, and automation and orchestration to provide visibility into operations, help optimize resource usage, and automate routine tasks.

Security controls

Security in cloud infrastructure covers the physical security of data centers, network security measures (e.g., firewalls and encryption), and logical security controls (e.g., identity and access management systems). Cloud service providers and users share responsibility for securing cloud environments. Cloud service providers secure the infrastructure, and users are responsible for protecting their data and applications.


Cloud infrastructure provides various storage options, including file storage, block storage, and object storage. Each type of storage is designed for specific use cases, such as serving website content, hosting databases, or storing backups.

Public vs private vs hybrid cloud infrastructures

Private cloud infrastructurePublic cloud infrastructure
With private cloud infrastructure, cloud computing resources are used exclusively by one organization. The cloud infrastructure can be located on-premises or hosted by a cloud service provider.  

-Organizations have more control over their environments, including the configuration and management of data and services.
-Private cloud infrastructure is often more secure due to its isolated nature.
-A high degree of customization is possible with private cloud infrastructure, allowing organizations to meet specific needs, such as performance, hardware, and security configurations.

-Private cloud infrastructure requires significant capital investment for systems, as well as ongoing maintenance and management expenses.
-The scalability of private cloud infrastructure is limited by the capacity of the hosted environment unless additional systems are added.
-Internal IT teams are responsible for maintaining private cloud infrastructure.
With public cloud infrastructure, computing services, and infrastructure are hosted by a cloud service provider in their data centers and shared across multiple customers.    

-The pay-as-you-go pricing model used for most public cloud infrastructure reduces the need for capital expenditure on hardware and maintenance.
-Public cloud infrastructure provides scalability options due to the breadth of available resources.
-The cloud provider manages all maintenance and upgrades in public cloud infrastructure, reducing the IT workload for customers.    

-Users have less control over the cloud infrastructure and operations as the service provider manages these.
-Sharing resources with others can pose increased security risks and vulnerabilities.
-Meeting specific regulatory compliance requirements can be more challenging in a public cloud environment due to the shared nature of the cloud infrastructure.  

Hybrid cloud infrastructure

Hybrid cloud infrastructure merges the advantages of both private and public clouds. With a hybrid cloud infrastructure, data and applications can seamlessly transition between private and public clouds, providing enhanced flexibility and a more comprehensive range of deployment choices.

Hybrid cloud infrastructure offers the scalability and cost benefits of public clouds while giving organizations the heightened security and control offered by private clouds for critical applications.

Cloud infrastructure vs. cloud architecture

Cloud infrastructure encompasses the physical and virtual resources needed for cloud computing. Cloud architectures provide the designs for how these resources are organized and utilized. The two are used in tandem to ensure the successful implementation and operation of cloud services.

Powering modern organizations with cloud infrastructure

The demands of modern organizations are leading to the widespread adoption of cloud infrastructure. Because of the flexible deployment options—public, private, and hybrid—many organizations are able to leverage cloud infrastructure to meet shifting load demands and mobile workforces and benefit from its flexibility, scalability, and efficiency.

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